Solidarity and mutuality constitute the basis for uniting various groups of people with a common interest in offsetting different risks. This paper briefly analyzes the meaning of the terms “solidarity” and “mutuality” as the basis of social security, then the emergence of social security and the current constitutional framework of the Republic of Serbia and the law of the European Union. In separate parts, the content and scope of mutuality and solidarity organized through mutual aid funds of craftsmen and merchants, according to the Guilds Decree 1847 and the mining and fraternal funds of miners from the Mining Code 1866 are investigated. The historical method is used to follow various types of care and assistance to briefly explain the reasons that led to their emergence, and later the social security institutions, while logical methods is deployed to draw conclusions about the characteristics of mutual insurance of craftsmen, traders and miners under these regulations. The paper deals with the analysis of the content and meaning of only those provisions and rules are relevant to the topic of this paper.